51; Are there body parts you could live without? Sure; people get by without fingers, teeth, legs, or even brains (figuratively speaking). Some people think this is proof of evolution. New Scientist, rather than showing how new organs and structures could arise by mutation and natural selection, listed “five things humans no longer need” as evidence for Darwin’s theory. Laura Spinney’s article resurrects the “vestigial organs” argument for evolution, which “has come under attack from creationists anxious to deny that vestigial organs (and hence evolution) exist at all.” Her list includes: (1) the vomeronasal organ, (2) goose bumps, (3) Darwin’s point (on the outer ear), (4) the tail bone (or coccyx), and (5) wisdom teeth. Each of these structures, she argues, give evidence of animal ancestry and not creation. Incidentally, Spinney did confess that “Probably the most famous example,” the appendix, may have dropped off the list. She said “it is now an open question whether the appendix is really vestigial.” An entry posted here on 10/06/2007 showed how the appendix may cultivate normal flora for the gut. The article suggested a similar function may be found for the tonsils – another erstwhile vestigial organ. Spinney also was equivocal about goose bumps; they “may have taken on a minor new role,” like signalling emotions or heightening the pleasure of listening to beautiful music.So here we have a fine thing; evolutionists using the loss of something as evidence that humans had bacteria ancestors. Tell us how to get an ear, teeth, a spine, skin and a nose in the first place before picking at little bits to call useless. A number of questions should be raised about this old vestigial-organs argument. Did Spinney connect any of these items with its actual effect on reproduction? Are people with wisdom teeth dropping out of the dating game and failing to have children? Are people with malformed bumps on their ears failing to hear the call of love? Are people with a coccyx unable to have kids? Is she a Lamarckian? Does disuse itself lead to loss of structure? Why isn’t evolution more effective at getting rid of vestigial structures if humans have been around for 300,000 years? Stickleback fish got rid of their armor, and got it right back within human memory, according to a recent news report (SeattlePI.com) that tells us “Evolution is much faster than people give it credit for.” Why has evolution been so slow at getting rid of useless structures in our case? And who says they are useless, anyway? Evolutionists told us the appendix, the pineal gland, the pituitary gland and a hundred other things were vestigial, only to have science find out they had a function after all. How do we know that they are not wrong now about these five items? If an organ or structure has a function at some stage in development, is it valid to call it vestigial? If it is deformed in today’s physiology due to a congenital defect that became established in the population, but was once well adapted, is it valid to call that vestigial? Has Spinney done any experiments to show what happens when the item is surgically removed? Dare say she would not sit comfortably without her coccyx. Many people were exposed to increased infections during the tonsillectomy craze of the 1960s. Spinney alleged that creationists have been anxious to deny that vestigial organs and evolution exist at all. Let’s turn that ploy around. We hereby allege that evolutionists have been anxious to deny that complex specified information and (and hence creation) exist at all. We allege that Darwinism is a vestigial philosophy from an atheistic past. Prove us wrong.(Visited 102 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The simplest things can be the most extraordinary. If you like finding amazing wonders in everyday things, you’ll be fascinated to read about the common fly in the cover story of Caltech’s magazine E&S (Engineering and Science).1 Michael Dickinson, a zoologist turned engineer, has described his Caltech team’s work trying to reverse-engineer the flight systems of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Part of the fascination of this article is the team’s cleverness in experiments. Dickinson and his students have built elaborate flight simulators for the tiny insects. Imagine taking a fly, not much bigger than a large speck of dust, and putting it into a custom arena in which the scenery is computer controlled, and every response of the fly’s wings and muscles can be measured. Imagine fastening a tiny fly with a tether and monitoring its every movement. (This is reminiscent of the monarch butterfly flight simulator – see 07/09/2002 headline – only more elaborate.) Dickinson’s team measured the “swatting reflex,” to see how the fly changes its angle when a large unknown object approaches. They studied flight motion with high-speed cameras, and even built “RoboFly”, a computer-controlled set of wings fed the exact motions of a real fly, to study the aerodynamic forces on the wings. Next, they are taking on the ambitious project of building a housefly-sized robotic insect that might be able to hover like the real thing. All this pales in comparison, however, to the profuse praise Dickinson lavishes on the engineering capabilities of the real live insect. Listen to what he says, and you will take his concluding statement to heart, “I hope you will think before you swat.” Here are some samples from his 10-page, illustrated article (emphasis added):CPU: Describing the fly’s ability to adjust flight processing in less than 30 milliseconds, “This is extraordinarily fast processing, and illustrates why the flight system of flies represents the gold standard for flying machines.” (p. 12)Brain: “Insects have quite sophisticated visual systems, and approximately two-thirds of their brain (about 200,000 neurons) is dedicated specifically to processing visual information.”Eyes: “Fruit fly’s eyes… have excellent temporal resolution and can resolve flashing lights at frequencies up to 10 times faster than our own eyes can. This means if you take a fly on a date to the movies it will think you brought it to a slide show.”Systems-level analysis of fly mechanics: “Here things get rather humbling, because it’s the mechanical component of this biological system that we, as engineers, are the furthest away from being able to replicate.”Materials science: “Flies don’t have an internal skeleton consisting of individual bones or cartilage. Instead, they’re surrounded by an external skeleton, the cuticle—a single, topologically continuous sheet composed of proteins, lipids, and the polysaccharide chitin. During development, complex interactions of genes and signalling molecules spatially regulate the composition, density, and orientation of protein and chitin molecules. Temporal regulation of protein synthesis and deposition allows the construction of elaborate, layered cuticles with the toughness of composite materials. The result of such precise spatial and temporal regulation is a complex, continuous exoskeleton separated into functional zones.; for instance, limbs consist of tough, rigid tubes of ‘molecular plywood’ connected by complex joints made of hard junctures separated by rubbery membranes.”Joints and Hinges: “Perhaps the most elaborate example of an arthropod joint, indeed one of the most complex skeletal structures known, is the wing hinge of insects–the morphological centerpiece of flight behavior.” (He describes how the parts function.) “Although the material properties of the elements within the hinge are indeed remarkable (resilin is one of the most resilient substances known), it is as much the structural complexity as the material properties that endows the origami-like wing hinge with its astonishing properties.”Flight mechanics: “By controlling the mechanics of the wing hinge, the steering muscles act as a tiny transmission system that can make the wing beat differently from one stroke to the next. Electrophysiological studies indicate this is a phase-control system.” He describes how the steering muscles can actually alter the stiffness of the wing in flight. “The fly uses the steering muscles as phase-control springs to alter the way the large strains produced by the power muscles are transformed into wing motion.”Timing: “During each wingbeat, sensory cells on the wings and halteres send timing signals into the brain that are used to tune the firing of the muscles.” Considering the speed at which their wings beat, this is certainly a rapid-response system.Gyroscopes: “The information coming from the haltere,” (a drumstick-shaped organ behind each wing) “is particularly important because it is essential in stabilizing reflexes. Beating antiphase to the wings, the halteres function as gyroscopes during flight.” (He describes how these organs respond to Coriolis forces with appropriate compensatory reflexes.) “The animal detects these rotations with its halteres and responds with compensatory changes in wing stroke. These reflexes are extraordinarily robust…. The halteres are essential elements of the fly’s control system. Cut them off, and a fly rapidly corkscrews to the ground.”Computation: “Because of the complexity of fly aerodynamics, understanding wing motion does not necessarily translate into an understanding of flight forces. It is a common myth that an engineer once proved a bumblebee couldn’t fly, and while the true story is really much kinder to the engineer, it underscores the difficulties of studying fly aerodynamics. At present, even brute-force mathematical computations on supercomputers cannot accurately predict the forces created by a flapping wing.”Wow. All this in a tiny fly! Wrapping up this amazing journey into miniaturized ultrasophisticated engineering, Dickinson puts his work into perspective:In the end, it’s just a fly. Is such an insignificant organism really worth all this effort? The natural world is filled with complex things, like immune cells, the human brain, and ecosystems. Although we’re made great progress in deconstructing life into its constituent parts such as genes and proteins, we have a ways to go before we have a deeper understanding of how elemental components function collectively to create rich behavior. The integrative approach that we are using to study fly flight is an attempt to move beyond reductionism and gain a formal understanding of the workings of a complex entity. The fly seems a reasonable place to start, and if successful, I hope such work will stimulate similar attempts throughout biology. The lessons learned along the way may provide useful insight for engineers and biologists alike. Even if you don’t buy such grand visions, I hope you will at least think before you swat.1Michael H. Dickinson, “Come Fly With Me,” Engineering and Science, Volume LXVI, No. 3, 2003 (Caltech), pp. 10-19.Thank you, Dr. Dickinson, for a wonderful glimpse into one of nature’s miniature engineering marvels. We feel like we were sitting behind you on the fly’s back, soaring on a thrill ride, like your first picture humorously illustrates. Thank you, also for reminding us that the world is filled with wonders like this, from bacteria to blue whales. Wow. Who would have suspected such wonders exist in a tiny fly? Certainly not Charles Darwin. Which reminds us, we were about to award you Story of the Month for this outstanding article, but you included this one statement which acts like the proverbial fly in the soup: “The information coming from the haltere, a hindwing modified by evolution and resembling a very small chicken drumstick, is particularly important because it is essential in stabilizing reflexes.” Since even the FDA tolerates a certain threshold of vermin residue in food, we can overlook this one tiny slip in an otherwise excellent piece of design-based scientific research and writing.(Visited 38 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Overall the report was not a huge shocker. No big price movement took place at noon. USDA estimated corn production at 13.555 billion bushels, last month it was 13.585 billion bushels. The corn yield came in at 168 bushels, compared to 167.5 last month. That is a bit bearish. Traders were expecting the corn yield to be reduced. Corn ending stocks were 1.561 billion bushels, last month they were 1.592 billion bushels. Corn acres were down as expected. Soybean production was pegged at 3.888 billion bushels while at 3.935 billion bushels last month. The soybean yield was 47.2 bushels per acre, last month it was 47.1 bushels per acre. Soybean ending stocks were 425 million bushels, down 25 million bushels from last last month. Soybean acres were cut 1.1 million acres. No surprises there. Traders the last several months have paid strong attention to soybean ending stocks. Two months ago they had expected ending stocks to drop below 370 million bushels. Instead they came out at 470 million bushels, resulting in November CBOT soybeans down 61 cents that report day.Prior to the report corn was down 1 cent, soybeans down 8 cents, with wheat unchanged. Shortly after the report came out corn was down 3 cents, soybeans up 6 cents, and wheat was down 1 cent. Corn was down 8 cents at one time but quickly recovered.Many were looking for this report to be more volatile and price changing than the September report. It will have plenty to watch for producers and traders alike. The computers will be reading the headlines. Price changes for corn and soybeans could be 5 to 20 cents in a few minutes as at least three different numbers will be closely watched. They would include yield, production, and ending stocks. The computers will be reading the headlines only, hence the rapid fire price changes both up and down in only a few minutes. Traders and analysts will be looking at all of the numbers for each crop in its totality. Computers cannot do that. The September report did provide some price changes, especially with corn up 12 cents that day. However, the report was quickly dismissed. With this report both USDA and NASS have many more actual field samples of harvested crops upon which to base their projections. In addition, FSA acre numbers will also be part of the equation for total corn and soybean production. The report today detailed corn and soybean production, ending stocks, and demand. Traders were looking for corn yields to decline while soybean yields are expected to increase. Those expected changes from traders are very small, less than half a bushel per acre for both corn and soybeans. Ending stocks for corn and soybeans are expected to be lowered across the board for corn, soybeans, and wheat. One other factor receiving minor press will be actual corn and soybean acres. Many are expecting soybean acres to decline at least a million acres. This accounts for traders’ expectations for reduced soybean production and ending stocks in spite of higher yield estimates. Corn and soybean harvest continues to advance across Ohio and the Midwest. Ohio’s farmers have been aggressively harvesting soybeans the past three weeks. Rains in central Ohio prevented soybean harvest for many one to two days this week. Western Ohio did not receive the rains seen in other parts of Ohio. Those light rains have western Ohio wanting more rain in order to get wheat planted up and going strong before winter sets in. This week’s harvest report on Monday put the U.S. corn harvest at 27% for the US, 32% had been expected. US soybean harvest was 42%, 35% had been expected.Lines at Ohio’s grain elevators continue to be all over the place. It obviously is a function of time and space. At times very few trucks are on the lot. Time it wrong and the wait could be hours to dump one truck. Those with home storage but not enough due to higher than expected yields have been able to move bushels to town now rather than waiting till the last 25% of harvest. Reports indicate China is trying to sell corn out of their reserves. The government’s instructions are to move it and not lose money. Two factors indicate that will be a very difficult objective to achieve. First the corn reserves are in the north, corn demand is in the south. Second, the corn in reserves is of very poor quality. China earlier this year has been a buyer of corn from Ukraine while buying sorghum from the U.S. Look for U.S. sorghum exports to China falling off sharply in coming months. Harvest weather looks to be very favorable for Ohio and the Midwest as the six to 10 day forecast is showing normal to above normal temperatures and normal rainfall. The farmer sell rate and harvest progress will be the main factors for grains during the month of October. Corn and soybean acres for 2015 were lowered about as expected.
Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now Competing Without a Relationship: An RFO shows up in your inbox. Or you happen to make the call right as your dream client begins to evaluate potential partners. The point is, you’re late to the party. It’s tough to compete from behind, and it is even tougher without relationships. There is one excellent play here: demonstrate the massive value that changes the evaluation and gives you time to develop the relationship. Without being known, liked, and trusted, you create resistance to a deal—even when and if you have the right solution.Pushing Through the Process: Your dream client is moving fast. Or maybe you need to close a deal. So you decide to compress the sales cycle as much as you can. You try to cram too much into a single meeting. You do shoddy work developing your solution. You work to get the final commitment as quickly as possible. But moving forward in your process without considering where the buyer is in their process generates resistance. Slow down, go faster.Skipping Stages: A derivation on the prior point. One way to try to go fast is to skip whole steps in your sales process. Why worry about the consensus building when you skip right to the presentation? Why worry about connecting value to your price when you can submit your proposal and pricing? The resistance you generate by skipping whole steps is complicated. Sometimes the resistance is to due to getting the solution wrong. Sometimes it’s the lack of consensus. Other times it’s just looks like you are a peddler hawking goods. Do what you know is right and create the value that is built into every stage of your process.Pushing Product: Just pushing product is enough to create resistance. Your dream client has seen and heard it all. Features. Benefits. Yeah. Who cares? Your dream clients don’t, that’s for sure. Pushing your product isn’t value creation. The resistance you generate is caused by the fact that pushing product subtracts value. Create a higher level of value.Dropping the Ball: If you want trust, you can’t drop the ball. You want resistance to “yes?” Do the things that violate trust like failing to keep your promises. If you say you are going to do something, even something as small as a phone call or an email, you have to do. The resistance you generate is caused by your dream client’s concern that you can be counted on to deliver.
Special teams, led by teachers of the four government universities in Jodhpur, will visit the villages adopted by them to monitor the progress of development works. The teams will assess the impact of works such as ODF campaign, plantation, crop diversification and literacy promotion. Each team, to be appointed by the Vice-Chancellors, will comprise two professors and 10 students. Rajasthan Governor Kalyan Singh met the V-Cs of Jai Narain Vyas University, Ayurveda University, Sardar Patel University of Police, Security and Criminal Justice and Agriculture University on Sunday. He said the ecology of adopted villages was an important aspect and the V-Cs should ensure maintenance of ponds and rainwater harvesting structures.
The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) on Wednesday wrote to Home Minister Amit Shah and Tribal Affairs Minister Arjun Munda, recommending that Ladakh be declared a tribal area under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. The Sixth Schedule provides for the administration of tribal areas after setting up autonomous district and regional councils. “The Commission, after careful consideration, recommends that the Union Territory of Ladakh be brought under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution… Accordingly, NCST chairperson (Nand Kumar Sai) has written to Home and Tribal Affairs Ministers conveying the recommendation,” a statement said. The NCST feels this will help “democratic devolution of powers, preserve and promote distinct culture of the region, protect agrarian rights including rights on land and enhance transfer of funds for speedy development of the region,” it said. Growing demand The NCST’s recommendation comes against the backdrop of growing demand from a predominantly tribal population and political leaders of Ladakh for according “tribal area” status to the region. The Home Ministry is the central authority for declaring an area as a “tribal area”. “The Commission discussed the issue of including Ladakh under the Fifth or Sixth Schedule of the Constitution at a meeting held on August 27. Later, on September 4, the NCST consulted the Home, Law and Tribal Affairs Ministries in this regard,” NCST Joint Secretary S.K. Ratho said. “After discussing the issue in detail, the Commission decided to recommend ‘tribal area’ status for Ladakh under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution,” he said.
Spain goalkeeper Iker Casillas said he was keen to carry on racking up the international accolades after equalling the record for most caps by a European player but acknowledged he was closing in on retirement.The 34-year-old Porto keeper showed his class with a couple of fine saves in his 166th Spain appearance, a goalless draw away to Romania on Sunday.”The time of my retirement is getting closer and closer,” Casillas told reporters.”It’s clear that time passes everyone and I am no exception of that.”But I have hope and I would like to be with this team full of youngsters. I don’t know if it’s my last year with Spain, I only think about enjoying each day.”Casillas went level with Latvia’s Vitalijs Astafjevs in the continent’s record books after his 166th appearance in his 16th international season.The former Real Madrid keeper, who has not conceded a goal in 710 minutes for Spain, made his senior international debut on June 3, 2000 against Sweden when he was 19 years and 14 days old.He has gone on to win Euro 2008 and 2012, the 2010 World Cup as well as five Spanish league titles with Real and three Champions Leagues.He left Real last year to join Porto but has been first choice for Spain coach Vicente Del Bosque during the Euro 2016 qualifying campaign, playing in seven of 10 matches despite Manchester United’s David De Gea pushing for a starting spot.”I am happy to reach 166 games and be the player with the most games for the national team,” Casillas said.advertisement”In these years I have lived good times and bad times, but I will stick with the good ones.”
Liverpool v Man Utd: Kuyt accused of ‘stabbing Stam in the back’by Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool hero Dirk Kuyt is being hammered inside Holland.Dutch pundit Johan Derksen has accused Kuyt of undermining Feyenoord coach Jaap Stam, the former Manchester United defender. Kuyt is the club’s U19 coach.Before going into Sunday’s clash with FC Twente, the heat was being turned up on Stam over Feyenoord’s flagging start to the season. Stam, after two years in charge of Reading, returned to Holland to take charge of PEC Zwolle before being named Feyenoord coach barely a year into the job. But with things going awry at the De Kuip, it’s been claimed Kuyt has been positioning himself to succeed Stam.Former Cambuur star Derksen said on Veronica Inside via Voetbalzone: “I assure you: Dirk Kuyt relentlessly stabs Jaap with a knife in his back so he can become head trainer.”Along with being youth coach, Kuyt also had input on signings at Feyenoord this summer. The former striker, now 39, had six years with Liverpool where he won the League Cup. Derksen continued: “Kuyt is thriving there on the terraces in that Feyenoord suit, and hoping that the camera will be pointed at him.”He has what every trainer suffers from: ‘I can get a lot more out of that group’.”They all make that mistake. Vanity wins him over. He has been acting strangely at Feyenoord for years, but there has never been anyone who has pulled the handbrake.”Feyenoord bounced back on Sunday with a thumping 5-1 win over Twente. The result sees Feyenoord jump up to sixth on the Eredivisie table.- updated September 30 TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
Ghaziabad: A 25-year-old youth was killed while his brother was critically injured after they were dragged to nearly 300 meters by the car which they had gone to buy.Cops said that the former owner of the car tried to flee with the vehicle after receiving money but the victims tried to catch him and got stuck in the vehicle. According to police, the deceased has been identified as Aarif and his cousin brother is Farmaan, both natives of Hapur district. Police officials said that the victims found the second hand car on OLX app. Also Read – After eight years, businessman arrested for kidnap & murderHaji Nusrat, father of deceased said that his son and his nephew had gone to see the car and make payment in Indirapuram area of Ghaziabad. “Aarif was looking for a second hand car and found a Maruti swift car on OLX app. When he contacted with the person who had posted the add, the deal was fixed for Rs 2 lakhs 60 thousand. As Aarif was interested in buying the vehicle, he called the owner of vehicle for a meeting at my nephew’s hotel in Hapur area on August 21,” said Also Read – Two brothers held for snatchingsNusrat. “The deal was fixed after they checked through the documents of the car and they had gone to a court in Ghaziabad to make the transfer related formalities. Aarif had paid Rs 2 lakhs against the vehicle while the rest of the amount was promised to be paid after the transfer formalities gets completed. However, while returning to home, the accused asked them to drop him at his house near Dabur crossing” he added. Cops said that the car broke down on the way and the accused asked the duo of brothers to step outside and push the car. “Victim’s family members told police that both the brothers had gone to drop the former owner of car to his house in Indirapuram police station area near Dabur crossing. They told police that the car broke down near Yashoda hospital and the accused asked them to step out and push the vehicle,” said Shlok Kumar, Superintendent of Police (city), Ghaziabad. “The accused sat on the wheels to start the car and as the car got started her tried to flee away with cash and the car but both the brothers caught hold over the car and they were dragged to nearly 300m before they fell off the car at a sharp turn and the accused ran over Aarif. A few passerby rushed them to a nearby hospital where doctors declared Aarif brought dead while Farmaan sustained critical injuries,” added Kumar. Police are trying to trace the driver of car by the registration number- UP 23 U 1801. “A case has been registered under IPC section 279 (punishment for rash driving), 304 (Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder) and 406 (Punishment for criminal breach of trust) and teams have been formed to work out the case,” said Kumar.