In his book, “Liminal Thinking,” Dave Gray uses the term “The Obvious” to refer to our individual view of the world. “The Obvious” is a map that we’ve built up over time to navigate the world around us, and it influences most of the conscious decisions we make in a given day. We trust our map implicitly, even take it for granted, but rarely to think about how that map came to be.The Pot Roast Story is an example of relying on ”The Obvious.” In the story, a woman, for years, diligently follows a family recipe that calls for cutting the ends off a pot roast before cooking. When the woman decides to find out why the recipe calls for cutting off the ends of the roast, she finds out it was less about the result than the original circumstances.Every day we make decisions in our life and in our work based on our individual map, on what we consider “The Obvious.” What if we looked deeper? What if we started to ask why we do the things we do? What is it we are actually trying to accomplish?Cooperative Extension, like other adult education programs, has a mission, though the exact mission and wording varies state by state. The word cloud below captures the most common words in Extension mission statements from 32 states found on websites in October 2016. What stands out to you?Viewing just the word cloud, we surmise that Extension is associated with universities, and uses education and research-based knowledge to improve and strengthen people, families, and communities. But why do we believe education and research-based knowledge will improve and strengthen people, families, and communities?The answer, for many adult education programs, is grounded in the theory of Diffusion of Innovation. This theory provides an underpinning for much of what Extension does, and a substantial body of peer-reviewed literature has developed around it.In a nutshell, “Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a social system.” – A Prospective and Retrospective Look at the Diffusion Model, Everett M. Rogers, Journal Of Health Communication Vol. 9 , Iss. Sup1, 2004Extension has developed as a system to communicate innovations (broadly defined) to our audiences, with the assumption that this will lead to the audience adopting innovations that will “strengthen and improve their lives.”Diffusion of innovation theory is implicit in the logic model, which posits changes in knowledge lead to changes in action which lead to changes in condition. While it seems self-evident that people require knowledge before their behavior will change, do we do enough to consider, and affect, the other complex factors that influence changes in behavior?We encourage you to read more about the diffusion of innovation, and ask if it sufficiently answers your “why question.” If it doesn’t, then what does? The next step is to delve a bit deeper with the diffusion of innovation theory and ask questions, e.g.:Where does the innovation come from?What is the role of Extension in developing or discovering the innovation?What is Extension’s role in communicating that innovation?Are there steps beyond communicating that will lead to adoption of the innovation?In our next post, we will look at some of these questions, particularly through the lens of networks. In our view, networks can play a key role in facilitating the discovery and spread of innovations.Authors: Bob Bertsch (@ndbob), Karen Jeannette (@kjeannette), and Stephen Judd (@sjudd)
This is the sound of the robot uprising. Check out this collection of the best hard-edged sci-fi royalty free music tracks in our library.Step into the future with these aggressively modern science fiction based royalty free music tracks. Fast-paced and glitchy, these songs are perfect for your next electro-uprising film or video game. Setting your action in the dark reaches of space? Got any violent aliens hanging around? Are the robots advancing? These royalty free music tracks have got the futuristic edge you need.These edgy royalty free music tracks are perfect for creating an action-packed tension feeling throughout your sci-fi projects. Featuring throbbing beats and synthy textures, these tracks are the soundtrack of technology taking over.If your video project is lacking in edgy futuristic atmosphere, these royalty free music tracks curated from the PremiumBeat music library will do the trick. The PremiumBeat Standard License covers most usage, including ALL web video (Facebook, Vimeo, YouTube, etc). Find the perfect royalty free music track below to bring your audience just the right amount of techno-apocalypse, sci-fi action atmosphere.Here are a few sci-fi soundtrack classics to inspire you as you charge into the future! Then, scroll down to PremiumBeat royalty free tracks that you can use in your projects!The Terminator (Main Theme) – Brad FiedelBlade Runner End Theme – Vangelis
These evocative, scene-setting royalty-free tracks will effortlessly add impact to your establishing shots.Establishing shots are vital components of most video and film projects. They help to orient the audience by providing a wealth of information about the scene to come. For example, take a simple shot of a city skyline at night. In a single shot, the filmmakers introduce both location and time without a single line of dialogue. Beyond the basics, a well thought-out shot can also establish mood and atmosphere.We’ve covered establishing shots on The Beat before. We’ve even created an in-depth guide on how to film your perfect one. But what we haven’t dived into yet is the importance of choosing appropriate music.Whether your soundtrack operates on a subconscious level or is more in-your-face, music can help sell your opening scene. Try bringing your scene’s setting to life by using a musical style that’s rooted to your specific location. This can even mean using a track that incorporates subtle local textures too, like how the sound of a duduk can enhance a shot of a desert landscape.Image via Shutterstock.The type of the establishing music you choose can act as a form of story foreshadowing too. Think about the tone of your scene to come. Is it romantic, tense, fast-paced? Your music should give viewers a heads-up about what they can expect.We asked our music experts to curate a selection of royalty free tracks specifically for opening scenes. It features a diverse mix of both location-specific and mood-setting tracks. And because establishing shots are often aerials, many of these selections make a perfect match for high-flying footage. Take a listen to the collection below and find the track to open your story.And, if you ever need great establishing footage, check out this handpicked collection from Shutterstock.
The events in Bomb City needed a larger-than-life feel and a gritty reality. We talked to DP Jake Wilganowski about how he pulled it off.Top Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.On December 12, 1997, Amarillo, TX native and punk rocker Brian Deneke was murdered in a deliberate hit-and-run attack. The events both before and after this attack are steeped in controversy and vitriol, and the news of the murder and the associated controversy quickly rippled across the entire state of Texas — as well as punk/skater groups nationwide.The film Bomb City, directed by Jameson Brooks (who also co-wrote the film with composer Sheldon Chick), tells the story of this murder and the questionable actions of the justice system to reprimand it.The film is now playing in select theaters and available on Video On Demand.Trailer via Gravitas Ventures.The film, which portrays some visceral, gritty moments from late ’90s Amarillo (a.k.a. Bomb City — the film’s title — because of its nuclear bomb disassembly plant), includes some stunning cinematography by Jake Wilganowski.With the use of grungy lights, colorful practicals, anamorphic lenses, stellar camerawork, and authentic locations (including some of the places where the events actually occurred), Wilganowski created a beautifully gritty reality.Check out this video for a behind-the-scenes look.Jake was generous enough to answer some questions about his work on the film and some of the techniques and tools he used to achieve the look.Image via 3rd IdentityPremiumBeat: Will you give me a bit of background about yourself and your previous work? Is this your biggest narrative project so far?Jake Wilganowski: Definitely the biggest narrative project I’ve photographed. I did one narrative feature before this one. And a feature-length doc. Other than that, it’s been shorts, music videos, and commercials.Image via 3rd Identity.PB: What was the genesis of your involvement with this film? Was the story something you had known much about beforehand? Had you worked with this director before?JW: I was 17 and lived in a town of 50,000 in Texas when the events happened in 1997. I remember hearing about it because it got quite a bit of news coverage. I was then — and still am — a skateboarder, and at that time in a small Texas community, we were on the outskirts of normalcy. We weren’t jocks or preps or kickers (western). So that’s why this story hit home with me when Jameson and Sheldon (director/writer and writer/composer) told me about the film, and I remembered the story.Dave Davis as Brian Deneke. (Image via Gravitas Ventures.)We had worked on a few commercial projects together, and I remember them mentioning this project to me when we first met, but you take everything with a grain of salt when people start talking about projects that are in development because it’s a long process to actually get something made, and most people quit somewhere in the process. So a couple years (I think) went by, and we worked together periodically on commercial projects, when one day Jameson called and said it was happening if I wanted to do it.MaeMae Renfrow as Jade. (Image via Gravitas Ventures.)PB: The film has a very pronounced visual tone that works really well with the story. How did you come up with this approach? Was there anything in particular that you drew inspiration from?JW: The whole style and look started with a look-book the director put together. We both love the same aesthetic, so it was easy to get on the same wavelength. We needed stylized naturalism in the lighting. I don’t know if that’s a thing or not, but it describes the lighting look to me in a nutshell.We used the camera movement to support the feeling of the characters and the scenes. All the courtroom and jock scenes are smooth movements — jib, dolly etc. Punk and fight scenes are mostly handheld. Jameson always said “Make it pretty.” Ha. We wanted the look to be raw and realistic, but beautiful and interesting to look at — stylistically heightened a bit from reality while still feeling grounded.Image via 3rd Identity.PB: What sort of pre-production did you do? Did you work off of storyboards, or was it more of an organic process?JW: The director and the writing and producing team pretty much lived at the production office for a month preceding actual shooting. I would go and visit to talk about things. We would plot things out generally or talk about different shot ideas. But on the actual shooting days, pretty organic.We definitely had ideas and notes going into each scene, of course, but I generally would light for areas instead of shots so we could figure out how we wanted to cover it as we rehearsed. We would have quick meetings beginning each day to go over everything, talk about certain shots or story points, then jump in.Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.PB: Can you give a quick rundown of the gear that you used to create the look of the film? (camera/ lenses/lights, etc.)JW: Two RED weapons using the 6k Dragon sensor. Shot everything at 1280 ISO for the most part. Kowa 2x anamorphic lenses: 40,50,75,100. For lighting on the bigger side, we used a few 6k HMIs, a 12k HMI, and a 4k HMI balloon light. We didn’t carry these larger lights with us to every location — only for specific scenes.We probably had a 3-5 ton grip package and would order additional things like lifts or the larger stands when needed. We also used traditional smaller movie fixtures, jokers, kinos, and tungsten lights, and all sorts of “found”-type lighting fixtures in the punk warehouse space, for example.Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.PB: How/why did you decide on the anamorphic lenses you used?JW: Kowa’s are by far the smallest 2x anamorphics made, so that was a big factor. I like to keep it light and tight. Also, in my opinion, they give the most interesting and one of the heaviest looks. Very alive and atmospheric. Modern lenses are fairly boring. This story needed lenses with some grit and soul. Jameson and I are both big anamorphic fans, and it just seemed to make sense aesthetically. We wanted this to be stylized and organic at the same time.Image via Gravitas Ventures.PB: The lighting in the film has a very natural, practically lit feel, yet there is a lot of color and style to the lighting throughout. How did you approach the lighting in the film?JW: A lot of my work wasn’t until we were walking the sets and really getting a feel for the spaces. I’ll go through a few setups:We had a couple days to pre-light the punk warehouse in particular, where the first week of shooting happened. The fun thing about that space was a lot of the scenes there take place at night, so we got to use DIY lighting just like kids in a warehouse would in real life. An old lamp or neon sign, a raw bulb in an old microwave for example, then we would supplement with hidden movie lights. The scene when they walk outside after the punk show for example is lit by an m18 HMI into an overhead ultra bounce for a soft blue ambient glow, then a few warm Home Depot work lights in frame and a couple other small movie lights creating some green. We wanted the color temps to be inconsistent. It was part of making it feel alive and real.Image via 3rd Identity.Hotspots in frame are another thing I like, so seeing all these fixtures play in frame is great — it creates life in the image. For the courtroom scenes, we wanted these to be bright and sunlit, but still contrasty and stylized. I think we secured that location right before we actually shot there, so we couldn’t do a lot of pre-pro, but we made it work, and thank God the weather cooperated.We created the main sunlight beam with a 12k HMI, if I remember correctly. The courtroom was on the second or third floor so the lights had to be on lifts outside the windows. There was also a 6k or 4k HMI outside, and inside was another smaller HMI bounced into an 8x ultra bounce, and then some negative fill we floated around depending on the shot. All the courtroom was shot on remote head jib, for the most part.Key Grip Richard Porter prepping an HMI for the courtroom scene. (Image via Jake Wilganowski.)The bonfire scene we had a 4k HMI balloon light with a double net on it hung from a lift. Then some tungsten fixtures bounced and dimmed around to create the fire glow. The lighting team also rigged all the red lights underneath and on the interior of Ricky’s truck using LED panels and ribbon light. For the main fight scene, we had three 6k HMIs that did the bulk of the lighting. They were parked on lifts or hydraulic stands a good distance away from the action to simulate parking lot lights.Image via Jake Wilganowski.PB: Were there any significant challenges or limitations you encountered during production?JW: Production is hard in general. Lack of sleep is probably the biggest challenge to any long-term production, especially with shooting so many nights. But when you’re making cool stuff as a DP it’s so invigorating, you just kind of go into work robot mode, and it consumes your life. That’s the hardest part: the grind, the flipping of days to nights and back. Keeping up with the real world in the period of production is hard. But you know it’ll be worth it.Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.PB: What did your crew look like? Did you generally keep things pretty small, or take it on a day-by-day basis?JW: For lighting, it would go up and down a bit depending on the days and locations, but we had 3-4 guys in electric and 3-4 in grip, plus the gaffer and key. The camera team was me and another op, a first AC for each of us, one 2nd AC, and a camera PA. It seemed like there were a million other people always around between production design, wardrobe, hair, actors, fight choreographers, extras, safety folks, PAs, etc. But there were some times when we would just go shoot with Dave (who plays Brian), Jameson (director), and me.The scene where he is out skating and stands really close to a train was just me and Dave and Jameson, who was driving us around at night in Amarillo. Dave just did this thing, and I shot it, and that was that. That is part of what’s cool about this movie. There are moments that are small and very documentary-like.We were doing exactly what Brian was doing at some point I’m sure — skating around, waiting for a train to pass at night in downtown Amarillo. Surreal.Image via Gravitas Ventures.PB: The subject matter of the film is very personal and emotional. Was it difficult or intimidating to tell such a heavy story like this?JW: There was definitely a weight involved. The coolest thing about this project was how everyone involved was very respectful about the project and Brian as real person. Literally, from the first day of shooting, there was great morale and energy. We all felt this wasn’t some crappy indie flick. There was something special here.I know the director/writers/producers all were very involved with the family for a long time before and during production, so they felt a special weight to do Brian justice and give more people a chance to know this story. I was there in a very, very small group with Brian’s family when they saw the movie for the first time in a closed theater. That was pretty heavy.Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.PB: Where was the film shot? Did you do any scenes where the events depicted in the film happened?JW: It was shot in Dallas, Amarillo, Fort Worth, Denton, Rockwall, and some other places I’m sure I’m forgetting. Amarillo was for a lot of the skating and exteriors, since that was where the story takes place. And yes, lots of places we were probably walking right where Brian walked or skated or stood or whatever. Just 20 years later.The courthouse exterior you see in the film is in downtown Amarillo and is the real one. The weird thing is that we’d be out shooting scenics in Amarillo and we’d get approached by people who were friends with him back then. One girl owns a tattoo shop now that we were shooting B-roll in front of one night, and she came out and talked with us. This happened a few times. This crime was a national news story the late ’90s — Oprah, 20/20, everything.People there definitely still remember.A Image via Gravitas Ventures.PB: What was post-production like? How did you collaborate with the colorist? Were any LUTs used during production that carried over into post?JW: I used a custom LUT I built for the production, I’d say 80 percent of the final look is what we saw on set. I wasn’t able to attend the color session, but they mostly used the look and doctored it up a bit. The director edited the entire film himself and went through a ton of revisions over the course of a year. There’s probably a solid hour of edited footage cut out of the final film.PB: What has it been like seeing the response to the film so far?JW: Seeing how people are affected after watching it is pretty amazing. It really works. It’s hard to elicit a genuine emotional response from people, and this film does it several times in different ways — from cringes to tears. It just reminds me the power of film: how it can cause people to think about things differently. When you can affect someone’s emotions and appeal to their intellect, that is a very powerful thing.Image via Ericka Estrella Photography.PB: Any advice for someone who is primarily in the lower-budget, commercial/doc space trying to break into narrative filmmaking?JW: It’s a very different way of thinking, and the best advice I can give is to try and make some things however you can. Even if it’s super low budget or with friends — as long as everyone is serious about trying to make something good. There is a switch that happens in my brain when approaching something narrative vs. a commercial. Long-form narrative is so completely different than a commercial in pretty much every way. You are way more into servicing the acting and actors than you are in a commercial. More respectful of the performance and of the moment. You are thinking about pace and sequences and mood and actor emotion so much more than in a commercial.When an intimate or highly emotional scene plays out between two characters over a few minutes, and you are right there next to them experiencing it, too, that’s something different. That’s where you want all your lights and equipment to just get out of the way, and you can just create art in the moment and be there with the actors. That doesn’t really happen in commercials. But basically if you want people to start asking you to shoot narrative work, then you have to shoot some narrative work. Or at least narrative-style work. A lot of the music videos I worked on earlier were narrative-based rather than performance-based, and those were the ones I enjoyed the most. I think every person will have a different path as to how they get to shoot their first legit narrative project, but it’s really about having people trust you to do a good job. You have to become friends with aspiring directors as an aspiring narrative DP.Image via 3rd Identity.PB: What is your main takeaway from the experience of helping to tell this story?JW: It’s spoiled me. I’ve turned down a couple other features because to me, a feature is so hard — you have to be passionate about the story. And the director and producing team. If all three of those things aren’t there, I won’t do it. I think this movie will always have a special place in my heart because it’s nostalgic to me. I was 17 when this happened, and Brian was 19. We both skated and lived in conservative, small Texas towns. I can relate to him, his friends, their lifestyle.What happened that night in Amarillo is a tragedy, and what happened later in the courtroom is an injustice. This film is so relevant right now, it’s astounding. Bomb City for life!Interested in more filmmaking interviews? Check these out.Interview: The Director and The Producer Behind “Man on Fire”Exclusive: Designing Wakanda and the Amazing Sets of Black PantherInterview: How the Editor Behind I, Tonya Recreated HistoryInterview: How This Oscar Nom Edited Downsizing While Directing His First FeatureExclusive Interview: The Secrets Behind RED Sensors and Resolution
Top image via Artie85. From picking the right song to knowing how to create your own motion graphics, working on an edit with a quick turnaround means anticipating challenges.There are many roadblocks you can run into once you start a video edit, and the sad fact is you’re going to hit one. It might be Premiere crashing, it might be lack of footage and resources, or it could just be a creative block. It happens to all of us. So, how do we prepare ourselves for success? It’s all about the approach and how you set up the project before you get started. So, let’s consider a few different things you can try to minimize the interruptions of editing roadblocks.Find The Right Music FasterFirst things first: picking music for your project. This means not only a creative approach but also a logical one. By which I mean choosing stems and waveforms. One of PremiumBeat’s recent updates gives you the ability to remove and use select stems as you see fit. This means you can pick your favorite aspects of a song (like a specific instrumental track) without being locked into the whole arrangement. That means more freedom in your edit. And a more unique final product.This can also save you time. It’s weird to think that more versions of an available song will cut down on time, but consider this: instead of cutting a song up in a hundred different ways trying to make one 10-second stretch work, you can simply remove aspects of the arrangement. If something isn’t working, pull it out, salvage the good parts, and move on.In addition, our waveform feature will give you an idea whether or not this song is a good match overall. If the video you’re cutting requires a steady, consistent beat, look for a track that represents this in the waveform. If you’re looking for a track with a giant build-up and a dramatic drop, the waveform will reflect this is well — saving you from listening to every single possible track.Keeping the Creative Juices FlowingImage via Todd Blankenship.It’s pretty simple — you can only edit as fast as you can tell a story. And sometimes you get stuck in a rut — whether it’s editor’s block or technical issues. When it happens, there are a few things you can try to help break through that inevitable wall. Working with your sound first is a good tactic. Todd Blankenship talks about this in his recent post:Nothing helps me visualize an edit more than listening to perfect sound for it beforehand. Sometimes, when you’re stuck on an edit, it’s likely that you might have started trying to edit with the wrong track — or you haven’t picked a track at all.Like Todd, my edits usually start with the music. You can develop a better understanding of the rhythm, pace, and tone of your piece once you’ve decided on a good song. Sometimes I even pick out multiple songs so that I have ready options in case the footage doesn’t quite match what I had originally imagined. Just remember: it’s okay to feel stuck, as long as you push forward and put something together. You can always improve a rough cut later.Memorizing Keyboard ShortcutsLike any aspect of filmmaking, practice makes perfect. It took me a considerable amount of time to memorize the various keyboard shortcuts (for Premiere, unlike most who still use FCP7 keys). It will take some time to get used to editing with keys. But there are a few jumping-off points that make sense. J, K, and L are a natural progression once you’ve gotten past in (I) and out (O). If you’re working with separate audio tracks unlinked from your video, you’ll need to know how to move things around to the nearest frame.Learn the Basics of After EffectsIf you’re like me, After Effects is something you’ve simply never sat down and taken the time to master — and your motion graphics suffer for it. Luckily for us, there are some great tutorials on how to learn the basics of the program in a manner of minutes. Shutterstock Tutorials is here to save the day:Obviously one video doesn’t cover everything you can do with the program, but if you just need to make a graphic or a title move around the frame to improve the overall production value of your video, this tutorial is for you.And if you need more resources for saving time and energy in your post-production workflow, over the past few months we’ve put out several tutorials covering all things Premiere and After Effects. No matter your current skill level, there’s always more to learn. Onward and upward!Learn This Trick to Help Your EditsHow to Easily Match ANY Two Cameras9 Cuts Every Video Editor Should Know5 Tips For Getting Started in After EffectsHow to Clean Up Noisy Audio In Under a Minute
You need a rotating shot, but you don’t have a multi-axis rig or a spinning set. No problem. Here’s how you can pull off the look on your own.If you love to follow behind-the-scenes social media pages, then you’ve more than likely come across a video like this clip posted by Aputure.The camera tracks forward or backward, and the camera rotates on a motorized four-axis gimbal. Alternatively, some grips will build rigs that fully rotate, if the multi-axis gimbal isn’t an option. Recently, DP Rachel Morrison and director Ryan Coogler deployed this technique on the big screen in Marvel’s Black Panther, as Killmonger nears his newly acquired throne.The technique offers a literal metaphor. As in the case of the Black Panther scene, everyone in that room has just had their world turned upside down. Of course, whether using a multi-axis rig, or conceiving a rig that can fully rotate, both of these setups would be extremely expensive. However, there is a low budget option that simply requires cheating with 4K footage.Using the basis of my How To Make A Dolly Zoom Effect Without A Zoom Lens tutorial, which explores the benefits of using 4K footage in a 1080p timeline, have a look at how you can achieve 180° or 360° rotation, without rigging.This is the shot I’ll be using as an example:It’s a long tracking shot of a character walking toward the camera. By continually tracking backward at a faster pace, we leave him isolated. He’s injured, alone, and lost. I think that rotating the shot upside down would be a great visual metaphor. However, there’s an obvious problem — this shot has already been recorded, and it wasn’t rotated on location. Practically speaking, we could rotate the composition, but we’re left with the black matte of the background. This is why, as with the dolly zoom tutorial, working in 4K is pivotal, as the effect relies on the extra resolution in a 1080p timeline.As such, there are some constraints to getting the best look, from the following technique.You need to shoot in 4K and frame for a cropped shot.The shot needs to be stable.Your subject needs to be centered.And you need to be moving in zSpace.You could, in theory, execute this method on a static shot, with the subject off-center. But it looks disconnected. Usually, this camera movement conveys a particular message. Executing the technique with a static shot doesn’t have the same payoff. Likewise, since we’re faking the effect, it looks more real with z-movement.So, with those elements covered, let’s get to it. I am working in DaVinci Resolve 15, but you can do this on any platform that accommodtes animated rotation.The HowFirst, we need to change the timeline from 4K to 1080p. If your software automatically scales the image to fit, then deactivate that setting, so you have a cropped image.At this point, you can see why you need to frame for a cropped image, as you lose a bit of compositional space. It’s important to note that, while it appears as if we’ve zoomed in, we’ve only cropped the 4K media without sacrificing image clarity.If your subject isn’t dead center, now would be the time to make it so. If the shot is a little shaky, you need to stabilize it. Smooth footages is essential to sell the effect. In Resolve, I’m going to go to the color page and stabilize the footage. Resolve’s stabilization process is pretty solid — I usually won’t need to adjust the parameters.With our footage cropped, centered, and stabilized, we now need to rotate the clip. How you rotate your clip (i.e. how fast and how many rotations) is entirely up to you. However, for my clip, I want one long rotation, from 0° to 180°. In your software, simply open the rotation panel, set a key frame at the start of your clip, move to the end point, and rotate the clip 180°.In typical, low-budget fashion, we have a slight problem. Although we’re using 4K media, there’s still an area in the clip where that the cropped resolution can’t cover entirely.There are two ways we can fix this. Either apply a letterbox to hide the blanking, or just barely increase the scale. And remember, if you crop the clip, instead of scaling it, zooming in just a touch won’t hurt the quality of your footage. And hey, we’re cheating! There are going to be setbacks!Here is your end result:Also, in order to heighten the rotation, I would add a sound effect.Cover image via RZ Images.Interested in more articles on Resolve? Check these out.DaVinci Resolve 15 Video Crash Course — Basic SettingsUsing the Track Select Forward Tool in DaVinci Resolve 15Quick Tip: How To Create Stills and Pauses In Resolve 15Color Grading: Working with the Hue vs. Curves in DaVinci ResolveHow to Use the Shared Node Feature in DaVinci Resolve
Essential Reading! Get my 2nd book: The Lost Art of Closing “In The Lost Art of Closing, Anthony proves that the final commitment can actually be one of the easiest parts of the sales process—if you’ve set it up properly with other commitments that have to happen long before the close. The key is to lead customers through a series of necessary steps designed to prevent a purchase stall.” Buy Now You might be overly concerned with selling to the C-suite. Authority used to reside in fewer people. Now decisions are more and more made by consensus. The elevator from the ground floor passes through every floor on its way to the Executive Suite. And it’s likely your deal does, too.The A, B, G and F SuitesThere aren’t any A, B, or F suites, I know. But if there were they might look something like this:The A Suite: The highest level of manager that has a real reason to care about what you sell isn’t always found in the C-suite. The A suite is full of the highest level of stakeholders that do care about what you sell.You may want to skip this group and go right to the C-suite. But that’s probably a mistake. This group is probably more interested in what you sell. More still, the C-suite is probably looking for this group to make the decision as to what they need to buy before they’re even remotely interested. This group is also likely to have the greatest ability to influence the C-suite (if and when it’s necessary that you bring them in).The B Suite: This level is the business owner. This is the group of stakeholders that owns the business outcome for your client company.You might decide not to spend any time outside of the C-suite (or the A-suite). Even though this group may not be upper management, they have the most insight about how what you sell really needs to work for them. They’ll give you the ground truth about what could be improved. And they likely have a ton of influence with the A-suite.The F Suite: Finance. Purchasing. Supply Chain Management. This is the suite where you find the economic buyers. Like it or not, your deal likely passes through this suite on its way from target to close.You can try to avoid this group if you want to, but pretending that they aren’t going to be involved in your deal doesn’t make it true. Purchasing and Finance have grown in power over the last decade, and there isn’t any reason not to learn to sell effectively to this group—even if they are overly concerned about price.The C-suite may or may not be involved in your deal. But there’s no doubt that a lot of lower-level stakeholders are going to be involved in your deal. And they’re going to be affected by whatever you sell. You build consensus by engaging with these groups, not by ignoring them. Stop at every floor on your way to the C-suite.QuestionsWhat is the title of the highest level of stakeholder that normally cares about what you sell?Who are the stakeholders you work most closely with once you’ve been chosen?Which stakeholders usually influence the decision to choose you?How do you build consensus among all these groups and individuals?
Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now Competing Without a Relationship: An RFO shows up in your inbox. Or you happen to make the call right as your dream client begins to evaluate potential partners. The point is, you’re late to the party. It’s tough to compete from behind, and it is even tougher without relationships. There is one excellent play here: demonstrate the massive value that changes the evaluation and gives you time to develop the relationship. Without being known, liked, and trusted, you create resistance to a deal—even when and if you have the right solution.Pushing Through the Process: Your dream client is moving fast. Or maybe you need to close a deal. So you decide to compress the sales cycle as much as you can. You try to cram too much into a single meeting. You do shoddy work developing your solution. You work to get the final commitment as quickly as possible. But moving forward in your process without considering where the buyer is in their process generates resistance. Slow down, go faster.Skipping Stages: A derivation on the prior point. One way to try to go fast is to skip whole steps in your sales process. Why worry about the consensus building when you skip right to the presentation? Why worry about connecting value to your price when you can submit your proposal and pricing? The resistance you generate by skipping whole steps is complicated. Sometimes the resistance is to due to getting the solution wrong. Sometimes it’s the lack of consensus. Other times it’s just looks like you are a peddler hawking goods. Do what you know is right and create the value that is built into every stage of your process.Pushing Product: Just pushing product is enough to create resistance. Your dream client has seen and heard it all. Features. Benefits. Yeah. Who cares? Your dream clients don’t, that’s for sure. Pushing your product isn’t value creation. The resistance you generate is caused by the fact that pushing product subtracts value. Create a higher level of value.Dropping the Ball: If you want trust, you can’t drop the ball. You want resistance to “yes?” Do the things that violate trust like failing to keep your promises. If you say you are going to do something, even something as small as a phone call or an email, you have to do. The resistance you generate is caused by your dream client’s concern that you can be counted on to deliver.
I love Twitter. Of all the social platforms, it is still my favorite. I like it better than Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, or SnapChat.Alas, Twitter is dying. Here is how I would save it.Eliminate AutomationI helped kill Twitter. Some of my tweets are automated. Rather than retweeting some of the things my friends write and share, I automated the tweets.Automation is sharing without engagement. Sharing without engagement isn’t very interesting. The engagement is more important than the sharing by itself.In the race for attention, we automated sharing. Some people automated their direct messages when followed. Now direct messages are nothing more than social spam.Tweets are scheduled. People are automatically followed. Direct messages are automated. We aren’t on Twitter. Our robots are.The first thing I would do to save Twitter would be to eliminate the ability to automate anything. None of your other social platforms are automated. To engage, you have to be there. That’s what makes it social.Bring Back the CountI have mostly stopped hitting the retweet share button on posts.The idea that removing the ability to see how many times something has been retweeted is somehow going to drive revenue is a massive overestimation of power. For that approach to work, people would have to care deeply enough about those stats to pay for them. You can already see where your traffic comes from in a host of other ways.By removing the retweet count on articles and posts, Twitter took the “social” out of social proof.Twitter works when people share. Seeing that a lot of other people shared something is evidence that it’s worth looking at, and it’s good proof that something might be worth sharing. The more people engage with content and share it on the platform, the more people engage on the platform. Engagement is what Twitter needs (well, one of the things).Twitter should immediately bring back the retweet count.Chase Bigger MoneyI have paid to advertise on Twitter. Some people clicked some links. Okay.Users don’t make you any real money. Advertisers make you real money. Google Ads work very well. Facebook Ads work amazingly well. We’ll see how Instagram and SnapChat do soon enough.If Twitter is going to thrive, someone is going to have to chase big money with an advertising platform that works. Facebook has the hot hand. But that doesn’t mean someone else can’t figure out how to do better themselves.In addition to putting ads in the stream, I’d put ads in the Notification stream. Admit it, when you log onto Twitter, the first thing you do is check your notifications. I’d have an advertisement there waiting for you. Those ads would mostly be from big brands that were sold by a professional, consultative sales force with the chops to help advertisers succeed.Honestly, that probably isn’t going to be enough. But I am 100% certain there are enough creative people around to figure out how to make money (a lot of unsexy businesses find a way to make a profit).Maybe Twitter doesn’t have to die. I hope you Tweet this by hand. Get the Free eBook! Learn how to sell without a sales manager. Download my free eBook! You need to make sales. You need help now. We’ve got you covered. This eBook will help you Seize Your Sales Destiny, with or without a manager. Download Now
My criticism of the “social only” crowd is that the promise that it would replace traditional prospecting was over-promised and under-delivered.
Essential Reading! Get my 2nd book: The Lost Art of Closing “In The Lost Art of Closing, Anthony proves that the final commitment can actually be one of the easiest parts of the sales process—if you’ve set it up properly with other commitments that have to happen long before the close. The key is to lead customers through a series of necessary steps designed to prevent a purchase stall.” Buy Now The sell sheet did nothing to improve the salespeople who used them when they called on their prospective clients. Like the catalogue, it may have improved sales, but it did nothing to make the salesperson more effective. It allowed for more orders.The telephone, about which I am still romantic, didn’t do anything more to make salespeople better at their trade, their craft, or their art. It eliminated distance as an obstacle and it improved efficiency, reducing the time it took to reach their prospective clients.The laptop and the PowerPoint deck didn’t improve any salesperson’s salesmanship, woman or man, and many would argue the effect has been detrimental on the whole (an idea with which I would vehemently disagree, as it is a useful tool in the right hands). Email doesn’t make a better salesperson, and automation is in some ways giving up on the hard work of making great salespeople.If you believe this is true, as I do, then you recognize that communication mediums can change without improving the mindset or skill sets of the salespeople—or any other group of individuals—who use them. As United States Airforce Colonel John Boyd, war fighter and strategist, said when he admonished the Pentagon and U.S. Congress, it’s “People, ideas, and technology. In that order.”The transformation of sales is from transactional to super-consultative and super-relational, from self-oriented to other-oriented, from reactive to proactive, from selling product to generating strategic outcomes, from execution to accountability for those strategic outcomes, and from responding to opportunities to creating opportunities. To make this transformation, a salesperson needs business acumen and situational knowledge that would make them a 52% SME (or better). They need to know how to be super-consultative, which requires that they be able to offer the advice that their clients need to produce better results.If the digital tools were capable of producing these outcomes, it would truly be the miracle that many believe it to be. But, alas, the tool kit, no matter the size, no matter the reach, and no matter the efficiency, doesn’t improve the effectiveness of the salesperson one iota.The transformation is occurring, but it’s far more disruptive than digital.
The Punjab police said on Saturday that it had arrested seven terrorists in Ludhiana associated with the terror outfit Babbar Khalsa International, who were allegedly planning to “disturb peace” in the sensitive border State.“The Ludhiana police, in a joint operation with the counter-intelligence wing, arrested seven members of Babbar Khalsa,” R.N. Dhoke, Commissioner of Police, Ludhiana, told presspersons.“We recovered pistols and cartridges from them. All of [the arrested] were working on the directions of the England-based Surinder Singh Babbar, who is an active member of the terror outfit,” Mr. Dhoke said.“Surinder was allegedly providing finance and weapons to the accused, who were conspiring to disturb peace and harmony in Punjab,” he said, adding that people writing against Khalistan movement were on the hit list of the arrested.Those arrested were identified as Onkar Singh, Jagran Singh, Amritpal Singh, Kuldip Singh, Jasbir Singh, Amanpreet Singh and Manpreet Singh. Three of them belonged to Amritsar, Mr. Dhoke said. They planned to hold a meeting when they were arrested.Babbar was selecting targets through social media, the police said.(With PTI inputs)
Two militants escaped from an encounter site in Baramulla’s Palhalan area in north Kashmir on Friday morning, while a civilian was injured in clashes near the encounter site.A police spokesman said the trapped militants “fired indiscriminately” and managed to escape “taking advantage of the darkness early in the morning”.“A cordon was being thrown and civilians were being evacuated when the militants escaped,” the spokesman added.The joint operation of the Army, police and CRPF was launched around 5 a.m. and two local militants were believed to be trapped in Palhalan’s Tantaray Pora.Police sources said soon after the exchange of fire between the security forces and the militants, scores of locals resorted to stone throwing.At least two civilians were hit by pellets in the clashes. Tear-smoke canisters were used to disperse the protesters.In Jammu, the Army carried out a search operation after the local residents in Samba’s Katli area observed “some suspicious movement”.“Two unidentified persons carrying weapons and dressed in black were seen by the locals. They fled when they were accosted by the locals,” said the Army’s Jammu-based spokesman.NIA gets custody of fiveThe special court of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), Jammu, on Friday granted seven days’ NIA remand for the five accused in the escape of Lashkar-e-Taiba militant Naveed Jutt from Srinagar’s Shri Maharaja Hari Singh hospital on February 6.The five accused arrested by the police earlier, Shakeel Ahmed Bhat, Tika Khan, Syed Tajamul Islam, Muhammad Shafi Wani and Jan Muhammad Ganai, were all residents of south Kashmir’s Pulwama.LeT’s foreign militant commander escaped from the hospital when the police was taking him along with six other detainees for a medical check up.Of the five arrested, two were active militants and three work as over ground workers for the militants. The overground workers were accused of providing a car and a bike to help the LeT escape. The LeT militant was also given a weapon.
Bihar Governor Satyapal Malik on Monday said that Indian men, especially those from north India, have become animals. He was talking about the increasing incidence of rape in the country. He justified the Ordinance providing for stringent punishment to those convicted of rape.While speaking at the Convocation Ceremony of Subharti University in Meerut on Monday, Mr. Malik said, “It is important to have a supervisor near the female toilets because that is a sensitive and dangerous place for them. We have become a society of animals. The Ordinance was brought because men in India, especially the men in North India have become animals. So to protect our daughters from them we not only need toilet for girls but also a supervisor there.”The Governor of Bihar who hails from Baghpat said that the affiliation of all those colleges and universities in Bihar which do not have toilets will be cancelled.
Special teams, led by teachers of the four government universities in Jodhpur, will visit the villages adopted by them to monitor the progress of development works. The teams will assess the impact of works such as ODF campaign, plantation, crop diversification and literacy promotion. Each team, to be appointed by the Vice-Chancellors, will comprise two professors and 10 students. Rajasthan Governor Kalyan Singh met the V-Cs of Jai Narain Vyas University, Ayurveda University, Sardar Patel University of Police, Security and Criminal Justice and Agriculture University on Sunday. He said the ecology of adopted villages was an important aspect and the V-Cs should ensure maintenance of ponds and rainwater harvesting structures.
The fifth batch of 4,047 pilgrims, including 808 women, left on Monday from here for the Kashmir Valley to pay obeisance at the 3,880-metre high cave shrine of Amarnath, a police officer said.Twin routes So far, 13,816 pilgrims had visited the cave shrine from the twin routes — traditional 36-km Pahalgam track in Anantnag district and 12-km shortest Baltal route in Ganderbal— since the commencement of the annual 60-day pilgrimage on June 28. The official said the yatris left in a fleet of 134 vehicles under tight security arrangements early on Monday and are expected to reach Baltal and Pahalgam base camps in the valley later in the day. Among the fifth batch, 2,303 pilgrims, including 148 Sadhus and 370 women, opted for the Pahalgam track, while 1,744, including 438 women, are performing the yatra through Baltal route, the officer said. Flash flood threat Despite incessant rains which even posed a threat of flash floods in the valley, the yatra to the cave shrine of Amarnath in south Kashmir Himalayas commenced in the valley as per schedule on June 28 after several hours of delay but faced frequent disruptions owing to continuous rainfall, slippery condition of the tracks and shooting of stones and landslides. A total of 13,816 pilgrims had paid their obeisance at the cave shrine, housing the naturally formed ice-shivlingam, till Sunday evening. Among them the highest number of 10,935 pilgrims visited the shrine on Sunday. The 60-day yatra is scheduled to conclude on August 26 coinciding with the ‘Raksha Bandhan’ festival.
As many as 23 legislators — 22 from the Congress and one from RLD — are expected to take oath as Ministers in the Rajasthan Cabinet formation on Monday.Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot and Deputy Chief Minister Sachin Pilot, who took oath on December 17, returned to the State capital on Sunday after spending three days in New Delhi for a meeting with president Rahul Gandhi and senior party functionaries.The names of Ministers have been finalised by State Congress leaders, including Mr. Gehlot and Mr. Pilot, after rounds of discussion with Mr. Gandhi and other senior leaders, sources said.The swearing-in ceremony is expected to be held in Jaipur at 11.30 a.m. on Monday, they said.Mr. Gandhi intends to focus on a Cabinet with a majority being fresh faces, sources said, adding it would be a blend of the old and new guard and would give an opportunity to those who had not held ministerial portfolios in the past.
The Election Commission’s decision to hold Parliament and Assembly elections separately gives an edge to the Bharatiya Janata Party and allows it to reframe J&K poll politics and stock up vote capital, while reducing the chances of the regional parties to throw up any surprise.The enthusiasm shown by over 11 mainstream political parties in J&K during the meetings with the EC team on March 4-5 in favour of simultaneous polls was in contrast to their earlier stand. The main regional parties — National Conference and Peoples Democratic Party —had warned against holding elections for Anantnag parliamentary constituency (vacant since April 2016 when PDP’s Mehbooba Mufti became J&K Chief Minister and vacated her seat), urban local bodies and panchayat, citing “unfavourable security situation” all along. Rural poll testHowever, the EC went ahead with the ULB and panchayat elections, notwithstanding a stepped up militancy and rising death counts of civilians at encounter sites, besides the NC and PDP’s decision to stay away from the process. The poll results may have been dismal in Kashmir Valley with less than 8% turnout, but Governor Satya Pal Malik congratulated the police and the civil administration for “peaceful polls, with militants failing to even clip a wing of a bird”. So the security apparatus passed a very crucial test ahead of the Parliament and Assembly polls. In contrast, the EC’s decision to delay Assembly elections on the security grounds, experts said, only allows the BJP to reshape its politics and attempt at favourable alliances with smaller regional parties like Peoples Conference and Independents, if it returns to power at the Centre again. “Simultaneous polls would have meant easy choices for the electorate on the basis of perceptions the parties shaped up in J&K, whether they ruled or were in the Opposition. However, delaying the polls gives the BJP an edge over the regional parties, like NC and PDP. In case Prime Minister Narendra Modi returns to power in Delhi, voter behaviour is bound to change in the Hindu belt in Jammu,” said Gull Mohammad Wani, professor at the Department of Political Science, Kashmir University.No grand alliance?Despite grand alliances being stitched together across the country against the BJP, the Congress, the NC and the PDP are forced to keep their cards close to their chest. The parties are finding it hard to decided on any pre-poll alliances, with the EC decision keeping the suspense alive on the BJP’s State poll plans. The delay, Prof. Wani said, may not emerge as a game changer for the BJP in the long run. “This delay means little on the ground. People have learnt their lessons the hard way in Kashmir and the choices are made. The voting pattern is already drawn in J&K, with region and religion dominating the poll narratives in the Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Ladakh,” he added. Early poll advantageThe NC did see a possible boost to its poll prospects in early and simultaneous elections, with the PDP image taking a nosedive in Kashmir after its alliance with the BJP. “Public memory is short. The more the time passes, the more are the chances of people forgetting the PDP’s follies and the bloodshed witnessed during its rule. It will only cost the NC and not the BJP in the Valley. The PDP will be happy with the delay,” said Prof. Wani.Separate Assembly and Lok Sabha polls will allow the BJP to field the party’s bigwigs like Narendra Modi himself to turn the tide and campaign in J&K. Besides, several decisions taken by Governor Malik may also help the BJP’s poll prospects. Mr. Malik’s decision to grant additional financial and administrative powers to Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council and also divisional status to Ladakh region is being seen as the Centre’s concessions. These measures come at a time when the BJP failed to win a single seat in 14 wards in the urban local bodies elections in Kargil and the party’s face, Thupstan Chhewang, former Lok Sabha member, resigned over the BJP’s “negligence of Leh”. Many more measures pushed through the Governor are bound to swing voters’ mood in Jammu and Ladakh. ‘Undemocratic move’“Continuing with President’s rule only means erosion of the rights of people of J&K. The EC’s decision [to hold separate Lok Sabha and Assembly polls] is a conservative move to allow the Central government retain control over J&K in an undemocratic way,” said Prof. Sidiq Wahid, former vice-chancellor of Islamic University of Sciences and Technology, Kashmir. Another flip side of delaying the elections in J&K is that no political buffer is left between the State and the people of J&K, fuelling more alienation. The delay only perpetuates anger and anxiety over the issue of special status granted under Article 35A and Article 370, which faces counter petitions before the Supreme Court, and would require an elected government to present its case.
Former Bihar Chief Minister Rabri Devi’s claim that Prashant Kishor had met her husband Lalu Prasad as an emissary of Nitish Kumar with the offer of a political realignment drew an angry rebuttal on Saturday from the strategist-turned-politician who challenged the jailed RJD president for a debate, in full media glare, over the episode.Ms. Rabri Devi, who is also the RJD’s national vice-president, stuck to her guns and challenged Mr. Kishor, who now holds the same post in the JD(U), to seek permission from jail authorities in Ranchi and slug it out with her imprisoned husband, who is serving sentences in fodder scam cases.Those convicted or facing charges of abuse of public office and misappropriation of funds are claiming to be the custodians of truth, Mr. Kishor tweeted. In the remaining half of the tweet, he said in Hindi @laluprasadrjd ji may sit with me at a time of his choice. It will be known to all what transpired between us and what offer was made from either side.Mr. Kishor’s outbursts came a day after Ms. Rabri Devi had said here that after having dumped the RJD-Congress combine and returning to the NDA in July 2017, Mr. Kumar had second thoughts and had sent Mr. Kishor five times to the residences allotted to her and, previously, to her younger son Tejashwi Yadav.Ms. Rabri Devi had claimed that Mr. Kishor was sent by Mr. Kumar with the offer that the RJD and the JD(U) merge together and the entity thus formed declare its own Prime Ministerial candidate ahead of the Lok Sabha poll. When asked about Mr. Kishor’s challenge, Ms. Rabri Devi said, “Let him go and have a debate with him (Lalu). Who is stopping him? Let him go, seek necessary permission from the jail authorities and then have his wish fulfilled.” Meanwhile, Tejashwi Yadav questioned the silence of the Chief Minister over the alleged episode. “I do not wish to speak about Prashant Kishor. He was not the active player. Why is Nitish Kumar keeping quiet? If he is sure Lalu ji, my mother and I are not speaking the truth, then he should break his silence. Even the Congress is privy to the proposal mooted by Mr. Kishor,” Mr. Yadav said.
Students who have even one above-average teacher between the fourth and eighth grades are more likely to attend college and to earn more money later in life, according to a new study that analyzed data on more than a million students. “This work provides more robust evidence that teachers really do matter long-term and that we can identify who good teachers are,” says economist Raj Chetty of Harvard University, who was not involved in the research.Good teachers produce successful students. The mantra makes sense, but it’s been hard to establish scientifically, says economist Gary Chamberlain of Harvard University. In the new analysis, Chamberlain used data from more than 800 schools in a single large urban area in the United States. (The city and all personal information on the students and teachers are being kept under wraps so that no one can be identified.) The data set, which spanned 1988 through 2009, included information on classroom assignments and test scores in grades four through eight, and—for those who attended elementary school in the early part of that range—the students’ later college attendance and their earnings at age 28.Other researchers, including Chetty, had previously used the same data set to conclude that teacher quality influenced students’ test scores and that those test scores could then predict the students’ college attendance and earnings in adulthood. But Chamberlain wanted to apply a different mathematical approach to verify the findings and ask another question: Do teachers have an effect on these long-term outcomes beyond their influence on test scores? So he developed a new model to compare different classrooms within the same school and different classes run by the same teacher.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)When Chamberlain crunched the numbers, he found that some teachers consistently produced students that went on to college and that the effect of the teachers was even stronger than simply their impact on test scores. If teachers are given quality rankings based only on their students’ test results, an above-average quality teacher bumps up a student’s chances of college attendance by less than a quarter of a percent. But if teacher rankings are instead based on the longer-term data, a high-quality teacher sends nearly 1% more students to college.The difference between the two ranking scenarios, Chamberlain says, is likely due to teacher attributes that are not reflected in standardized test scores; they give the students untested skills that help them thrive. Like other studies, Chamberlain’s work found that teachers had an effect on annual earnings at age 28—the increase hovered around 1%. Over time, those numbers add up—in terms of the effect that a single teacher has over his or her career, and in terms of the effect of many good—or bad—teachers in a row on a student.“This is additional evidence that teachers matter,” Chamberlain says. “And we’re getting closer to figuring out what the ingredients of teacher quality are.”The study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doesn’t have the data to delve deeper into what these ingredients are, he says. But future work could try to answer why teachers have such a long-lasting impact by looking at other ways of gauging teacher quality, such as evaluations. And researchers are still trying to determine whether some of the apparent effect of teachers can instead be explained by other social and economic qualities of students, such as the education level of their parents.“The challenge is that students are not assigned randomly to teachers,” Chetty says. Some teachers might repeatedly get assigned more children who have had difficulties in the past, whereas others might get classrooms full of children with parents who are highly involved in their children’s education and request that teacher, he says. “In those cases, you’re going to see big differences in outcomes that have nothing to do with the teachers.”For now, Chamberlain doesn’t expect the new numbers to influence policy on how teachers are evaluated. But he hopes that the findings motivate others to work toward studying what makes a good teacher have such long-lasting effects. “Some school districts are interested in using these measurements of teacher value to make personnel decisions on hiring and promotions,” Chamberlain says. “But we still need to pin down exactly what observable things about a teacher matter for their effects on students.”